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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Design Construction"

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50LAR/1029-79/05 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



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4b 



DESIGN CONSTRUCTION 
MAY 1979 






U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 
DESIGN CONSTRUCTION 
MAY 1979 
I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Design Construction site is a single-family residence in Bigfork, Montana. 
The home has approximately 1800 square feet of conditioned space. Solar 
energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water 
(DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a 
gross area of 792 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 45 
degrees to the horizontal. Water is the transfer medium that delivers solar 
energy from the collector array to storage and from storage to the space 
heating and hot water loads. This water is drained from the collector when 
the collector pump is not operating. Solar energy is stored in a 1400-gallon 
water tank located in the conditioned space. The cylindrical tank has 6-inch 
concrete walls with 2-inch expanded polyurethane insulation. Preheated city 
water is stored in a 65-gallon DHW tank. When solar energy is insufficient 
to satisfy the space heating load, an electrical heating element in the 
boiler provides auxiliary energy for space heating. Similarly, an electrical 
heating element in the DHW tank provides auxiliary energy for water heating. 
Solar energy in the storage tank is supplemented by auxiliary energy provided 
by a hydro-heater fireplace which has a heat-exchanger water jacket around 
the chimney. When the fireplace is used, water is circulated from the storage 
tank through the fireplace and chimney heat exchanger, thereby accumulating 
additional energy which is returned to the storage tank. Energy from the 
storage tank is transferred to the DHW tank through an in-tank heat exchanger. 
Hot water used for space heating is passed from storage through the electric 
boiler and then through a four-zone hydronic heating system. Two fans are 
installed in the small enclosed chamber above the fireplace in which the 
fireplace pump (P4) and the fireplace control sensor are located. These fans 
are used to cool the chamber ambient and to circulate the warm chamber air 
into the living space. Both fans operate in parallel with the fireplace 
pump. The system, shown schematically in Figure I, has four modes of so', 
operation, each of which is independent of th« 



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Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when there is a tempera- 
ture difference of 9°F between the control sensor located in the collector and 
the control sensor in the storage tank. Water is circulated from the storage 
tank through the collector and back to the tank. This circulation continues 
until the temperature difference between the two control sensors decreases to 
3°F, at which point the circulating pump turns off. When the pump stops 
operating, water is drained from the collector and returned to the storage 
tank. 

Mode 2 - Storage- to-Space Heating : This mode activates when any of the four 
zones demand space heating. The thermostat of the zone demanding heat will 
activate the solenoid-operated control valve for that zone. The thermostat 
will also activate the circulating pump to allow heated water to circulate 
from the storage tank, through the boiler, to the appropriate zone (via its 
control valve) and back to the storage tank. Water continues to circulate as 
long as any zone demands heat. The electric boiler will provide auxiliary 
energy if the temperature of the water circulating through the boiler drops 
below 110°F (set point). When the space heating demand is satisfied, the 
circulating pump turns off and all open-zone control valves close. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-DHW Heat Exchanger : This mode activates when the tempera- 
ture difference between a control sensor in the storage tank and a control 
sensor on the surface of the DHW tank reaches 9°F and terminates when the 
temperature difference drops to 5°F. If the water temperature in the hot 
water tank falls below the setting of its thermostat, the electric immersion 
heater turns on to provide auxiliary energy to the water in the hot water 
tank. This mode also terminates if the temperature in the storage tank, as 
indicated by another control sensor in the storage tank, falls below 80°F 
(set point). 

Mode 4 - Fireplace-to-Storage : This mode activates when there is a tempera- 
ture difference of 9°F between a control sensor located in the fireplace and 
another control sensor in the storage tank. (This occurs when the fireplace 
is being used.) The pump turns on to circulate water from the storage tank 
through the fireplace and the chimney heat exchanger, thereby accumul 



energy which is returned to storage. This mode continues until the tempera- 
ture difference between the two control sensors drops to 3°F, at which point 
the pump turns off and the mode terminates. Both fans in the enclosed chamber 
above the fireplace also operate in parallel with the pump while in this mode. 



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was occupied in May and the solar energy system operated continuously 
during the month. Total solar energy collected was 10.9 million Btu and 
the total solar energy used was 3.8 million Btu or 35 percent of the 
collected energy. The change in stored energy was 0.19 million Btu and 
the total system losses amounted to 9.4 million Btu. Solar energy 
satisfied 94 percent of the DHW requirements and 93 percent of the space 
heating requirements. The solar energy system provided an electrical 
energy savings of 3.5 million Btu. The performance factors are discussed 
below and are presented in the accompanying report forms. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
36.9 million Btu for a daily average of 1505 Btu per square foot. This 
was below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical 
area during May of 1534 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane 
with a tilt of 45 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature 
during May was 51 °F and was equal to the long-t^rm average for May. The 
number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) 
ivas 403, as compared with the long-term average of 437. 



THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

S ystem - During May the solar energy system performed approximately the same 
as expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart 
analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as input Solar energy 
used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected would 
be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 3.8 million Btu versus 
an estimated 4.0 million Btu. System total solar fraction was 94 percent 
versus an estimated 100 percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of May was 36.9 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was 
operating, the total insolation amounted to 28.4 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of May was 10.9 million Btu, resulting 
in a collector array efficiency of 30 percent, based on total incident insola- 
tion. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 5.4 mil- 
lion Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to storage was 
5.5 million Btu. This loss represented 50 percent of the energy collected. 
Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.14 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 5.4 million Btu and auxiliary 
energy contribution to storage was 0.090 million Btu. There were 7.9 million 
Btu delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating subsystems. The 
storage efficiency was 147 percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the 
sum of the energy removed from storage and the change in stored energy, to 
the energy delivered to storage. The average storage temperature for the 
month was 1 51 °F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed 3.7 million Btu of solar energy, 0.053 
million Btu of auxiliary energy from storage and 0.12 million Btu of auxiliary 
electrical energy to satisfy a hot water load of 1.3 million Btu. The solar 
fraction of this load was 94 percent. Losses from the DHW subsystem were 2.5 
million Btu. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.12 million Btu of 
operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings oi 3.5 million 
Btu. A daily average of 58 gallons of DHW was consumed at an average tempera- 
ture of 146°F delivered from the tank. 



Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 0.16 million Btu of 
solar energy, 0.005 million Btu of auxiliary thermal energy from storage, and 
no auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a space heating load of 0.17 million 
Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 93 percent. The space heating 
subsystem consumed a total of 0.007 million Btu of operating energy, resulting 
in an electrical energy savings of 0.15 million Btu. 



OBSERVATIONS 

Data was lost for a 62-hour period at the end of the month due to a power 
shutdown at the site and also because the phone lines were accidently cut 
during construction work. Therefore, no data appear in the report forms for 
the last three days of May. 

Intermittent failure of the flowmeter (W400) in the storage/space heating loop 
continued throughout the month. The meter intermittently indicated zero flow 
even though other sensor data show that the related pump (P3) was operating. 
An estimated flow rate was used on those scans where W400 failed (approximately 
15 percent of the scans where flow occurred). Therefore, the performance 
factors derived from this flow (energy output from storage and heating load) 
were based, in part, on estimated flow. A replacement sensor is at the site 
and will be installed by the grantee in June. 

Storage efficiency continued to exceed 100 percent by a considerable amount. 
Since energy input to storage during May was primarily from the collector loop 
and energy output from storage was primarily to the hot water loop, analysis 
will focus on these two loops in an attempt to determine the cause of the 
storage energy imbalance. The high tranport losses in the storage/DHW loop 
(4.1 million Btu) combined with the high losses in the DHW subsystem (65 
percent of energy input) suggest that energy measurements in this loop may be 
high. High measurements \n this loop, in addition to explaining the high 
transport and subsystem losses, would also contribute to the hiqh value for 
storage efficiency. 



The total solar energy delivered to storage during May was 6.9 million Btu. 
However 1.5 million Btu of this energy was returned by storage to the collector 
loop during the start-up phase of mode 1, resulting in a net input of 5.4 
million Btu of solar energy to storage for the month. Therefore, of the 5.4 
million Btu energy loss in the collector loop during mode 1 operation, 1.5 
million Btu (28 percent) of the loss was start-up phase losses; the remainder 
was due to transport losses between the collector array and storage. 



ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a total electrical energy savings of 3.5 
million Btu. The DHW subsystem provided an electrical energy savings of 3.5 
million Btu, while the space heating subsystem contributed an electrical 
energy savings of 0.15 million Btu. 



III. ACTION STATUS 

The flow sensor (W400) in the storage/space heating loop will be replaced 
by the grantee. The replacement meter is at the site. 






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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

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